Abstract (Expand)

<b>Objectives:</b> Mental demands at the workplace can be preventive against cognitive decline. However, personality shapes the way information is processed and we therefore assume that Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, would moderate the beneficial effects of workplace stimulation on cognitive outcomes. <b>Methods:</b> We analyzed data from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study (n = 6529). Cognitive outcomes were assessed via the Trail-Making Test (TMTA, TMTB) and the Verbal Fluency Test. Personality was assessed via the Personality Adjective List (16 AM). Mental demands were classified with the indices Verbal and Executive based on the O*NET database. <b>Results:</b> Multivariate regression analyses showed only two significant moderation effects of personality, i.e. in individuals with low scores on Conscientiousness/Openness, index Verbal was connected to better TMTB performance, while this effect disappeared for individuals with high values on the personality trait. However, the additional explained variance remained marginal. <b>Conclusion:</b> The findings suggest that personality does not modify associations between high mental demands at work and better cognitive functioning in old age; however, there is a tendency that high levels of Openness and Conscientiousness may offset effects of mental demands.

Authors: Felix S Hussenoeder, Ines Conrad, Susanne Roehr, Heide Glaesmer, Andreas Hinz, Cornelia Enzenbach, Christoph Engel, Veronika Witte, Matthias L Schroeter, Markus Löffler, Joachim Thiery, Arno Villringer, Steffi Gerlinde Riedel-Heller, Francisca S Rodriguez

Date Published: 25th May 2019

Journal: Aging &amp; mental health

Human Diseases: mental depression

Abstract (Expand)

PURPOSE: The Sniffin' Sticks Screening 12 test is a test of olfactory performance based on pen-like odor dispensing devices. The aims of this study were to analyze the performance of this test in a general population sample and to explore associations between olfactory dysfunction and quality of life. METHODS: A large community sample (n = 7267) completed the Sniffin' Sticks Screening 12 test and several questionnaires measuring quality of life, anxiety, dispositional optimism, social support, and satisfaction with life. RESULTS: According to the criteria recommended by the test manufacturer, 5.1% of the participants were anosmic (score </= 6), 52.4% were dysosmic (7 </= score </= 10), and 42.5% were normosmic (score >/= 11). While frequencies of correct identification differed between the 12 sticks, all sticks contributed positively to the test results. The associations between olfactory functioning and quality of life variables were negligible. In the multivariate analyses, none of the associations reached the 1% significance level. CONCLUSIONS: While studies with patients in otorhinolaryngological clinics often report substantial detriments to their quality of life in relation to olfactory dysfunction, the present epidemiological study cannot confirm this association for the general population.

Authors: Andreas Hinz, Tobias Luck, Steffi Gerlinde Riedel-Heller, P. Y. Herzberg, C. Rolffs, K. Wirkner, Christoph Engel

Date Published: 21st Nov 2018

Journal: Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol

Human Diseases: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), to provide normative values, and to analyze associations between life satisfaction and sociodemographic and behavioral data. METHODS: A German community sample (n = 9711) with an age range of 18-80 years was surveyed using the SWLS and several other questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the dimensionality of the SWLS. Invariance across gender and age groups was tested with multiple-group CFA. Associations between SWLS, sociodemographic variables, and behavioral variables were tested with ANOVAs. RESULTS: Confirmatory factorial analysis results confirmed that the SWLS is a one-dimensional scale. Measurement invariance across gender was completely confirmed, while concerning age strict measurement invariance was confirmed. The effects of gender and age on satisfaction with life were weak. Satisfaction with life was associated with fatigue (r = - .49), the mental component of quality of life (r = .45), anxiety (r = - .42), dispositional optimism (r = .41), pessimism (r = - .34), sleep quality (r = - .32), and sociodemographic factors such as marital status, income, and occupational status. Non-smokers reported higher life satisfaction than smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the good psychometric properties, the SWLS can be recommended for use in epidemiological research. Normative values based on a large community sample are provided.

Authors: Andreas Hinz, I. Conrad, M. L. Schroeter, H. Glaesmer, E. Brahler, M. Zenger, R. D. Kocalevent, P. Y. Herzberg

Date Published: 29th Mar 2018

Journal: Qual Life Res

Human Diseases: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: The PHQ-15 is widely used as an open access screening instrument for somatic symptoms in different health care settings. The objectives of the study were to contribute to the construct validity and to generate normative data for the PHQ-15. METHODS: The survey was conducted in the general population in Germany from August 2011 to November 2014 (n=9250). All participants underwent an extensive core assessment including a set of questionnaires. RESULTS: Men reported significantly less (p<0.001) physical symptoms than women (4.6 [SD=3.6] vs. 6.3 [SD=4.1]). The PHQ-15 total score was strongly correlated with the physical component of quality of life (r=-0.58), fatigue (r=0.56), anxiety (r=0.54) and sleep problems (r=0.54). While high socioeconomic status was associated with low prevalences of all complaints, obesity was associated with some of the complaints, especially shortness of breath and pain in arms, legs, and joints. Normative data for the PHQ-15 were generated for men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation confirms the burden caused by somatic symptoms in terms of impaired physical quality of life. In association with psychosocial consequences such as anxiety as well as sleep problems, future studies should also focus on the disease burden of somatic symptoms. In addition, the normative data provide a framework for the interpretation and comparison with other populations.

Authors: Andreas Hinz, J. Ernst, H. Glaesmer, E. Brahler, F. G. Rauscher, K. Petrowski, R. D. Kocalevent

Date Published: 27th May 2017

Journal: J Psychosom Res

Human Diseases: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Background/Objective: The Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) is often used to assess dispositional optimism. The aims of this study were to test psychometric properties of the LOT-R, to provide normative scores, and to test the association between optimism and several psychological, sociodemographic, and behavioral factors. Method: A randomly selected German general population community sample with an age range of 18-80 years (N = 9,711) was surveyed. Results: The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) proved two (correlated) factors: Optimism and Pessimism. Invariance tests across gender and age groups confirmed metric invariance. There were only small gender differences in the LOT-R total score (M = 16.4 for females and M = 16.1 for males). The correlation between the subscales Optimism and Pessimism was strong for young and well educated people. Low optimism mean scores were observed for unemployed people, people with low income, smokers, and obese people. Normative scores of the LOT-R are provided. Conclusions: The study confirmed the bidimensional structure of the LOT-R and invariance across age and gender. We can recommend using this instrument for measuring dispositional optimism and pessimism in epidemiological research and clinical practice.

Authors: Andreas Hinz, Christian Sander, H. Glaesmer, E. Brähler, M. Zenger, A. Hilbert, R. D. Kocalevent

Date Published: 1st May 2017

Journal: Elsevier BV

Human Diseases: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scales GAD-7 and GAD-2 are instruments for the assessment of anxiety. The aims of this study are to test psychometric properties of these questionnaires, to provide normative values, and to investigate associations with sociodemographic factors, quality of life, psychological variables, and behavioral factors. METHODS: A German community sample (n=9721) with an age range of 18-80 years was surveyed using the GAD-7 and several other questionnaires. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the unidimensionality and measurement invariance of the GAD-7 across age and gender. Females were more anxious than males (mean scores: M=4.07 vs. M=3.01; effect size: d=0.33). There was no linear age trend. A total of 5.9% fulfilled the cut-off criterion of 10 and above. Anxiety was correlated with low quality of life, fatigue, low habitual optimism, physical complaints, sleep problems, low life satisfaction, low social support, low education, unemployment, and low income. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were also associated with heightened anxiety, especially in women. When comparing the GAD-7 (7 items) with the ultra-short GAD-2 (2 items), the GAD-7 instrument was superior to the GAD-2 regarding several psychometric criteria. LIMITATIONS: The response rate (33%) was low. Because of the cross-sectional character of the study, causal conclusions cannot be drawn. A further limitation is the lack of a gold standard for diagnosing anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: The GAD-7 can be recommended for use in clinical research and routine.

Authors: Andreas Hinz, A. M. Klein, E. Brahler, H. Glaesmer, Tobias Luck, Steffi Gerlinde Riedel-Heller, K. Wirkner, A. Hilbert

Date Published: 1st Mar 2017

Journal: J Affect Disord

Human Diseases: generalized anxiety disorder

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is frequently used to assess sleep problems in patients. The aim of this study was to provide reference values for this questionnaire, to test psychometric properties, and to analyze associations with psychological, sociodemographic, and behavioral factors. METHODS: A German community sample comprising 9284 adult residents (aged 18-80 years) was surveyed using the PSQI and several other questionnaires. RESULTS: According to the generally accepted cut-off (PSQI > 5), 36% of the general population slept badly. Females reported significantly more sleep problems than males (mean scores: M = 5.5 vs. M = 4.4, respectively; effect size d = 0.35), but there was no linear association between age and sleep quality. Sleep problems were correlated with fatigue, quality of life (physical as well as mental), physical complaints, anxiety, and lack of optimism. Sleep quality was also strongly associated with socioeconomic status, professional situation (poorest sleep quality in unemployed people), and obesity. In addition to the results of the PSQI total score, mean scores of specific components of sleep quality were presented (sleep latency, sleep duration, and use of sleep medication). CONCLUSION: The PSQI proved to be a suitable instrument for measuring sleep quality. Gender differences, psychological factors, and obesity should be taken into account when groups of patients are compared with respect to sleep problems.

Authors: Andreas Hinz, H. Glaesmer, E. Brahler, Markus Löffler, Christoph Engel, C. Enzenbach, U. Hegerl, Christian Sander

Date Published: 21st Feb 2017

Journal: Sleep Med

Human Diseases: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

PURPOSE: Daytime sleepiness is associated with several medical problems. The aim of this paper is to provide normative values for one of the most often used questionnaires measuring daytime sleepiness, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). METHODS: A large sample of 9711 people from the German general population took part in this study. In addition to the ESS, several other questionnaires were used, and sociodemographic and behavioral factors were recorded. RESULTS: Normative values for the ESS are given. According to the generally accepted criterion ESS > 10, 23 % of the sample showed excessive daytime sleepiness. Males reported significantly more daytime sleepiness than females (effect size d = 0.19). In the age range of 40-80 years, a continuous decline of daytime sleepiness was observed. Psychometric properties of the ESS were good. Alcohol intake and nicotine consumption were marginally associated with daytime sleepiness, and obese people reported significantly more sleepiness than people of normal weight (OR = 1.39). CONCLUSIONS: The normative tables allow clinicians and researchers to assess the degree of their patients' daytime sleepiness, especially in the upper range of scores.

Authors: Christian Sander, U. Hegerl, K. Wirkner, N. Walter, R. D. Kocalevent, K. Petrowski, H. Glaesmer, Andreas Hinz

Date Published: 29th May 2016

Journal: Sleep Breath

Human Diseases: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: The LIFE-Adult-Study is a population-based cohort study, which has recently completed the baseline examination of 10,000 randomly selected participants from Leipzig, a major city with 550,000 inhabitants in the east of Germany. It is the first study of this kind and size in an urban population in the eastern part of Germany. The study is conducted by the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE). Our objective is to investigate prevalences, early onset markers, genetic predispositions, and the role of lifestyle factors of major civilization diseases, with primary focus on metabolic and vascular diseases, heart function, cognitive impairment, brain function, depression, sleep disorders and vigilance dysregulation, retinal and optic nerve degeneration, and allergies. METHODS/DESIGN: The study covers a main age range from 40-79 years with particular deep phenotyping in elderly participants above the age of 60. The baseline examination was conducted from August 2011 to November 2014. All participants underwent an extensive core assessment programme (5-6 h) including structured interviews, questionnaires, physical examinations, and biospecimen collection. Participants over 60 underwent two additional assessment programmes (3-4 h each) on two separate visits including deeper cognitive testing, brain magnetic resonance imaging, diagnostic interviews for depression, and electroencephalography. DISCUSSION: The participation rate was 33 %. The assessment programme was accepted well and completely passed by almost all participants. Biomarker analyses have already been performed in all participants. Genotype, transcriptome and metabolome analyses have been conducted in subgroups. The first follow-up examination will commence in 2016.

Authors: Markus Löffler, Christoph Engel, P. Ahnert, D. Alfermann, K. Arelin, R. Baber, F. Beutner, Hans Binder, E. Brahler, R. Burkhardt, U. Ceglarek, C. Enzenbach, M. Fuchs, H. Glaesmer, F. Girlich, A. Hagendorff, M. Hantzsch, U. Hegerl, S. Henger, T. Hensch, Andreas Hinz, V. Holzendorf, D. Husser, A. Kersting, A. Kiel, Toralf Kirsten, J. Kratzsch, K. Krohn, Tobias Luck, S. Melzer, J. Netto, M. Nuchter, M. Raschpichler, F. G. Rauscher, Steffi Gerlinde Riedel-Heller, Christian Sander, Markus Scholz, P. Schonknecht, M. L. Schroeter, J. C. Simon, R. Speer, J. Staker, R. Stein, Y. Stobel-Richter, M. Stumvoll, A. Tarnok, A. Teren, D. Teupser, F. S. Then, A. Tonjes, R. Treudler, A. Villringer, A. Weissgerber, P. Wiedemann, Silke Zachariae, K. Wirkner, J. Thiery

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