Publications

Abstract (Expand)

Purpose Overall survival (OS) is the definitive and best-established primary efficacy end point to evaluate diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) therapies, but it requires prolonged follow-up. An earlier end point assessed post-treatment would expedite clinical trial conduct and accelerate patient access to effective new therapies. Our objective was to formally evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) and PFS at 24 months (PFS24) as surrogate end points for OS in first-line DLBCL. Patients and Methods Individual patient data were analyzed from 7,507 patients from 13 multicenter randomized controlled trials of active treatment in previously untreated DLBCL, published after 2002, with sufficient PFS data to predict treatment effects on OS. Trial-level surrogacy examining the correlation of treatment effect estimates of PFS/PFS24 and OS was evaluated using both linear regression ( R(2)WLS) and Copula bivariable ( R(2)Copula) models. Prespecified criteria for surrogacy required either R(2)WLS or R(2)Copula >/= 0.80 and neither < 0.7, with lower-bound 95% CI > 0.60. Results Trial-level surrogacy for PFS was strong ( R(2)WLS = 0.83; R(2)Copula = 0.85) and met the predefined criteria for surrogacy. At the patient level, PFS strongly correlated with OS. The surrogate threshold effect had a hazard ratio of 0.89. Surrogacy was consistent across comparisons with or without rituximab and with rituximab maintenance trials. Trial-level surrogacy for PFS24 was relatively strong ( R(2)WLS = 0.77; R(2)Copula = 0.78) but did not meet prespecified criteria. At the patient level, PFS24 significantly correlated with OS. The surrogate threshold effect had an odds ratio of 1.51. Conclusion This large pooled analysis of individual patient data supports PFS as a surrogate end point for OS in future randomized controlled trials evaluating chemoimmunotherapy in DLBCL. Use of this end point may expedite therapeutic development with the intent of bringing novel therapies to this patient population years before OS results are mature.

Authors: Q. Shi, N. Schmitz, F. S. Ou, J. G. Dixon, D. Cunningham, M. Pfreundschuh, J. F. Seymour, U. Jaeger, T. M. Habermann, C. Haioun, H. Tilly, H. Ghesquieres, F. Merli, Marita Ziepert, R. Herbrecht, J. Flament, T. Fu, B. Coiffier, C. R. Flowers

Date Published: 1st Sep 2018

Journal: J Clin Oncol

Human Diseases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

Background: Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with first-line anthracycline-based immunochemotherapy and remaining in remission at 2 years have excellent outcomes. This study assessed overall survival (OS) stratified by progression-free survival (PFS) at 24 months (PFS24) using individual patient data from patients with DLBCL enrolled in multi-center, international randomized clinical trials as part of the Surrogate Endpoint for Aggressive Lymphoma (SEAL) Collaboration. Patients and methods: PFS24 was defined as being alive and PFS24 after study entry. OS from PFS24 was defined as time from identified PFS24 status until death due to any cause. OS was compared with each patient's age-, sex-, and country-matched general population using expected survival and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Results: A total of 5853 patients enrolled in trials in the SEAL database received rituximab as part of induction therapy and were included in this analysis. The median age was 62 years (range 18-92), and 56% were greater than 60 years of age. At a median follow-up of 4.4 years, 1337 patients (23%) had disease progression, 1489 (25%) had died, and 5101 had sufficient follow-up to evaluate PFS24. A total of 1423 assessable patients failed to achieve PFS24 with a median OS of 7.2 months (95% CI 6.8-8.1) after progression; 5-year OS after progression was 19% and SMR was 32.1 (95% CI 30.0-34.4). A total of 3678 patients achieved PFS24; SMR after achieving PFS24 was 1.22 (95% CI 1.09-1.37). The observed OS versus expected OS at 3, 5, and 7 years after achieving PFS24 was 93.1% versus 94.4%, 87.6% versus 89.5%, and 80.0% versus 83.7%, respectively. Conclusion: Patients treated with rituximab containing anthracycline-based immunochemotherapy on clinical trials who are alive without progression at 24 months from the onset of initial therapy have excellent outcomes with survival that is marginally lower but clinically indistinguishable from the age-, sex-, and country-matched background population for 7 years after achieving PFS24.

Authors: M. J. Maurer, T. M. Habermann, Q. Shi, N. Schmitz, D. Cunningham, M. Pfreundschuh, J. F. Seymour, U. Jaeger, C. Haioun, H. Tilly, H. Ghesquieres, F. Merli, Marita Ziepert, R. Herbrecht, J. Flament, T. Fu, C. R. Flowers, B. Coiffier

Date Published: 1st Aug 2018

Journal: Ann Oncol

Human Diseases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common lymphoid malignancy in adults, is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease that is further classified into transcriptionally defined activated B cell (ABC) and germinal center B cell (GCB) subtypes. We carried out a comprehensive genetic analysis of 304 primary DLBCLs and identified low-frequency alterations, captured recurrent mutations, somatic copy number alterations, and structural variants, and defined coordinate signatures in patients with available outcome data. We integrated these genetic drivers using consensus clustering and identified five robust DLBCL subsets, including a previously unrecognized group of low-risk ABC-DLBCLs of extrafollicular/marginal zone origin; two distinct subsets of GCB-DLBCLs with different outcomes and targetable alterations; and an ABC/GCB-independent group with biallelic inactivation of TP53, CDKN2A loss, and associated genomic instability. The genetic features of the newly characterized subsets, their mutational signatures, and the temporal ordering of identified alterations provide new insights into DLBCL pathogenesis. The coordinate genetic signatures also predict outcome independent of the clinical International Prognostic Index and suggest new combination treatment strategies. More broadly, our results provide a roadmap for an actionable DLBCL classification.

Authors: B. Chapuy, C. Stewart, A. J. Dunford, J. Kim, A. Kamburov, R. A. Redd, M. S. Lawrence, M. G. M. Roemer, A. J. Li, Marita Ziepert, A. M. Staiger, J. A. Wala, M. D. Ducar, I. Leshchiner, E. Rheinbay, A. Taylor-Weiner, C. A. Coughlin, J. M. Hess, C. S. Pedamallu, D. Livitz, D. Rosebrock, M. Rosenberg, A. A. Tracy, H. Horn, P. van Hummelen, A. L. Feldman, B. K. Link, A. J. Novak, J. R. Cerhan, T. M. Habermann, R. Siebert, A. Rosenwald, A. R. Thorner, M. L. Meyerson, T. R. Golub, R. Beroukhim, G. G. Wulf, G. Ott, S. J. Rodig, S. Monti, D. S. Neuberg, Markus Löffler, M. Pfreundschuh, L. Trumper, G. Getz, M. A. Shipp

Date Published: 2nd May 2018

Journal: Nat Med

Human Diseases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

To study if obesity is a risk factor in elderly patients (>60 years) with aggressive B-cell lymphoma, the outcomes of 576 elderly patients treated with rituximab in the RICOVER-60 trial were analysed in a retrospective study with regard to body mass index (BMI) and gender. Of the 576 patients, 1% had low body weight (BMI < 18.5), 38% were normal weight (18.5 </= BMI < 25), 42% were overweight (25 </= BMI < 30) and 19% were obese (BMI >/= 30). Event-free (EFS), progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) according to BMI showed no significant differences for all and for male patients. EFS (P = 0.041), PFS (P = 0.038) and OS (P = 0.031) were significantly better for female non-obese patients. A multivariate analysis adjusted for International Prognostic Index risk factors confirmed these results, with the following hazard ratios (HR) for obesity (BMI >/= 30) for EFS/PFS/OS: all patients - 1.4/1.4/1.4 (not significant); male patients - 1.2/1.2/1.0 (not significant) and female patients - 1.7 (P = 0.032)/1.9 (P = 0.022)/2.0 (P = 0.017). In conclusion, obesity is a risk factor that influences treatment outcome in elderly female patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP (rituximab + cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone). The inferior outcomes in obese female patients may be due to faster rituximab clearance in obese females.

Authors: K. Hohloch, Bettina Altmann, M. Pfreundschuh, Markus Löffler, N. Schmitz, F. Zettl, Marita Ziepert, L. Trumper

Date Published: 2nd Dec 2017

Journal: Br J Haematol

Human Diseases: obesity, B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

Background: The prognosis of elderly patients with aggressive B-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after first lymphoma-related treatment failure (TF-L) is not well described. Methods: We analysed patient characteristics including the presence of MYC rearrangements and MYC-expression immunohistochemistry (IHC) at diagnosis and modalities of salvage therapy and their impact on the prognosis of patients between 61 and 80 years who had been treated on the RICOVER-60 trial. Results: TF-L occurred in 301 of the 1222 (24.6%) patients; 297 patients could be analysed. Prognosis was extremely poor in patients with primary progressive disease or early relapse (</=12 months) with median survivals of 3.3 and 6.4 months. Survival after TF-L was significantly lower in patients pretreated with R-CHOP compared with CHOP (23.0% versus 36.4% at 2 years, P = 0.016). In patients with MYC translocation at diagnosis Rituximab reduced the risk of TF-L from 58.8% to 26.3%. Survival after TF-L was significant longer for patients after CHOP without MYC translocations (31.8% versus 0% at 2 years, P < 0.001) or negative MYC-IHC (41.0% versus 16.8% at 2 years, P = 0.017) but not after R-CHOP. 224 patients (75.4%) received salvage therapy. Rituximab was part of salvage therapy in 57.4% and improved 2-year survival rate from 20.7% to 46.8% (P < 0.001). The benefit of R was significant after first-line CHOP [2-year overall survival (OS) 49.6% versus 19.1%, P < 0.001] as well as after R-CHOP (2-year OS 33.1% and 22.5%, P = 0.034). For patients pretreated with R-CHOP long-term survival was below 15% regardless of the treatment chosen. Conclusion: MYC rearrangement and IHC are adverse prognostic factors after TF-L for CHOP treated patients, rituximab as part of first-line therapy reduced the effects of MYC-break. Rituximab improves results of any type of salvage therapy; however, survival after progression/relapse of aggressive B-cell lymphoma in elderly patients pretreated with (R)-CHOP is poor regardless of treatment chosen.

Authors: B. Glass, A. J. Dohm, L. H. Truemper, M. Pfreundschuh, A. Bleckmann, G. G. Wulf, A. Rosenwald, Marita Ziepert, N. Schmitz

Date Published: 1st Dec 2017

Journal: Ann Oncol

Human Diseases: B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

Male sex is associated with unfavourable pharmacokinetics and prognosis in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We investigated higher rituximab doses for elderly male DLBCL patients. Elderly patients (61-80 years) received 6 cycles CHOP-14 (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone at 14-day intervals) and were randomized to 8 cycles rituximab (males 500 mg/m(2) , females 375 mg/m(2) ) every 2 weeks or according to an upfront dose-dense schedule. In 268 (120 females, 148 males) no difference between the standard and the upfront dose-dense rituximab schedule was found (3-year PFS 72% vs. 74%; OS 74% vs. 77%; P = 0.651). The 500 mg/m(2) dose of rituximab for male patients was associated with serum levels and exposure times slightly better than in females and a male/female hazard ratio of 0.9 for progression-free survival (PFS) and 0.8 for overall survival. For elderly males, 500 mg/m(2) was not more toxic than 375 mg/m(2) rituximab, but improved PFS by 32.5% (P = 0.039), with a trend for a (30%) better overall survival (P = 0.076) in a planned subgroup analysis adjusting for International Prognostic Index risk factors. We conclude that the higher rituximab dose for elderly male patients abrogated the adverse prognosis of male sex without increasing toxicity. In the era of personalized medicine, sex-specific pharmacokinetics and toxicities should be investigated for all drugs where these parameters impact on outcome.

Authors: M. Pfreundschuh, N. Murawski, Samira Zeynalova, Marita Ziepert, Markus Löffler, M. Hanel, J. Dierlamm, U. Keller, M. Dreyling, L. Truemper, N. Frickhofen, A. N. Hunerliturkoglu, N. Schmitz, V. Poschel, T. Rixecker, C. Berdel, C. Rube, G. Held, C. Zwick

Date Published: 11th Oct 2017

Journal: Br J Haematol

Human Diseases: non-Hodgkin lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

Purpose To explore the prognostic impact and interdependence of the cell-of-origin (COO) classification, dual expression (DE) of MYC and BCL2 proteins, and MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 translocations in two prospectively randomized clinical trials of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods Overall, 452 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from two prospective, randomized DLBCL trials (RICOVER-60, prospective, randomized study for patients > 60 years, all IPI groups; and R-MegaCHOEP, prospective, randomized study for patients </= 60 years with age-adjusted IPI 2,3) of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group were analyzed with the Lymph2Cx assay for COO classification, with immunohistochemistry for MYC and BCL2, and with fluorescent in situ hybridization for MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 rearrangements. Results COO classification was successful in 414 of 452 samples. No significant differences with respect to COO (activated B-cell [ABC]-like DLBCL v germinal center B-cell [GCB]-like DLBCL) were observed in event-free survival, progression-free survival, and overall survival in patients treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) in the RICOVER-60 trial. Also, no differences with respect to COO were observed in multivariable analyses adjusted for International Prognostic Index factors in event-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] of ABC-like disease v GCB-like disease, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.6 to 1.6; P = .93), progression-free survival (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.6 to 1.8; P = .82), and overall survival (HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.6 to 1.8; P = .96). Similar results were observed in the R-MegaCHOEP trial. In patients treated with R-CHOP, DE status was associated with significantly inferior survival compared with nonDE within the GCB, but not within the ABC subgroup. DE status was associated with significantly inferior outcome compared with patients with ABC-like DLBCL without DE (5-year PFS rate, 39% [95% CI,19% to 59%] v 68% [95% CI, 52% to 85%]; P = .03) and compared with patients with GCB-like DLBCL without DE. When data from patients with nonDE were analyzed separately, the outcome of patients in the ABC subgroup was inferior to that of patients in the GCB subgroup (5-year PFS rate, 68% [95% CI, 52% to 85%] v 85% [95% CI, 74% to 96%]; P = .04). Conclusion COO profiling in two prospective randomized DLBCL trials failed to identify prognostic subgroups, whereas dual expression of MYC and BCL2 was predictive of poor survival. Evaluation of prognostic or predictive biomarkers in the management of DLBCL, such as the COO, within prospective clinical trials will be important in the future.

Authors: A. M. Staiger, Marita Ziepert, H. Horn, D. W. Scott, T. F. E. Barth, H. W. Bernd, A. C. Feller, W. Klapper, M. Szczepanowski, Michael Hummel, H. Stein, D. Lenze, M. L. Hansmann, S. Hartmann, P. Moller, S. Cogliatti, G. Lenz, L. Trumper, Markus Löffler, N. Schmitz, M. Pfreundschuh, A. Rosenwald, G. Ott

Date Published: 1st Aug 2017

Journal: J Clin Oncol

Human Diseases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

Background: There is an on-going debate whether 2- or 3-weekly administration of R-CHOP is the preferred first-line treatment for elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The UK NCRI R-CHOP14v21 randomized phase 3 trial did not demonstrate a difference in outcomes between R-CHOP-14 and R-CHOP-21 in newly diagnosed DLBCL patients aged 19-88 years, but data on elderly patients have not been reported in detail so far. Here, we provide a subgroup analysis of patients >/=60 years treated on the R-CHOP14v21 trial with extended follow-up. Patients and methods: Six hundred and four R-CHOP14v21 patients >/=60 years were included in this subgroup analysis, with a median follow-up of 77.7 months. To assess the impact of MYC rearrangements (MYC-R) and double-hit-lymphoma (DHL) on outcome in elderly patients, we performed a joint analysis of cases with available molecular data from the R-CHOP14v21 (N = 217) and RICOVER-60 (N = 204) trials. Results: Elderly DLBCL patients received high dose intensities with median total doses of >/=98% for all agents. Toxicities were similar in both arms with the exception of more grade >/=3 neutropenia (P < 0.0001) and fewer grade >/=3 thrombocytopenia (P = 0.05) in R-CHOP-21 versus R-CHOP-14. The elderly patient population had a favorable 5-year overall survival (OS) of 69% (95% CI: 65-73). We did not identify any subgroup of patients that showed differential response to either regimen. In multivariable analysis including individual factors of the IPI, gender, bulk, B2M and albumin levels, only age and B2M were of independent prognostic significance for OS. Molecular analyses demonstrated a significant impact of MYC-R (HR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.22-3.16; P = 0.01) and DHL (HR = 2.21; 95% CI: 1.18-4.11; P = 0.01) on OS in the combined trial cohorts, independent of other prognostic factors. Conclusions: Our data support equivalence of both R-CHOP application forms in elderly DLBCL patients. Elderly MYC-R and DHL patients have inferior prognosis and should be considered for alternative treatment approaches. Trial numbers: ISCRTN 16017947 (R-CHOP14v21); NCT00052936 (RICOVER-60).

Authors: A. Kuhnl, D. Cunningham, N. Counsell, E. A. Hawkes, W. Qian, P. Smith, N. Chadwick, A. Lawrie, P. Mouncey, A. Jack, C. Pocock, K. M. Ardeshna, J. Radford, A. McMillan, J. Davies, D. Turner, A. Kruger, P. W. Johnson, J. Gambell, A. Rosenwald, G. Ott, H. Horn, Marita Ziepert, M. Pfreundschuh, D. Linch

Date Published: 1st Jul 2017

Journal: Ann Oncol

Human Diseases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

We recently reported a truncating deletion in the NFKBIE gene, which encodes IkappaBepsilon, a negative feedback regulator of NF-kappaB, in clinically aggressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Because preliminary data indicate enrichment of NFKBIE aberrations in other lymphoid malignancies, we screened a large patient cohort (n = 1460) diagnosed with different lymphoid neoplasms. While NFKBIE deletions were infrequent in follicular lymphoma, splenic marginal zone lymphoma, and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (<2%), slightly higher frequencies were seen in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and primary central nervous system lymphoma (3% to 4%). In contrast, a remarkably high frequency of NFKBIE aberrations (46/203 cases [22.7%]) was observed in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (3/11 cases [27.3%]). NFKBIE-deleted PMBL patients were more often therapy refractory (P = .022) and displayed inferior outcome compared with wild-type patients (5-year survival, 59% vs 78%; P = .034); however, they appeared to benefit from radiotherapy (P =022) and rituximab-containing regimens (P = .074). NFKBIE aberrations remained an independent factor in multivariate analysis (P = .003) and when restricting the analysis to immunochemotherapy-treated patients (P = .008). Whole-exome sequencing and gene expression profiling verified the importance of NF-kappaB deregulation in PMBL. In summary, we identify NFKBIE aberrations as a common genetic event across B-cell malignancies and highlight NFKBIE deletions as a novel poor-prognostic marker in PMBL.

Authors: L. Mansouri, D. Noerenberg, E. Young, E. Mylonas, M. Abdulla, M. Frick, F. Asmar, V. Ljungstrom, M. Schneider, K. Yoshida, A. Skaftason, T. Pandzic, B. Gonzalez, A. Tasidou, N. Waldhueter, A. Rivas-Delgado, M. Angelopoulou, Marita Ziepert, C. M. Arends, L. Couronne, D. Lenze, C. D. Baldus, C. Bastard, J. Okosun, J. Fitzgibbon, B. Dorken, H. G. Drexler, D. Roos-Weil, C. A. Schmitt, H. D. Munch-Petersen, T. Zenz, M. L. Hansmann, J. C. Strefford, G. Enblad, O. A. Bernard, E. Ralfkiaer, M. Erlanson, P. Korkolopoulou, M. Hultdin, T. Papadaki, K. Gronbaek, A. Lopez-Guillermo, S. Ogawa, R. Kuppers, K. Stamatopoulos, N. Stavroyianni, G. Kanellis, A. Rosenwald, E. Campo, R. M. Amini, G. Ott, T. P. Vassilakopoulos, Michael Hummel, R. Rosenquist, F. Damm

Date Published: 8th Dec 2016

Journal: Blood

Human Diseases: B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

PURPOSE: To develop and validate a risk score for relapse in the CNS in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 2,164 patients (18 to 80 years old) with aggressive B-cell lymphomas (80% DLBCL) treated with rituximab and CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone)-like chemotherapy, who were enrolled in studies from the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group and the MabThera International Trial, were analyzed for occurrence of relapse/progression in the CNS. The resulting risk model was validated in an independent data set of 1,597 patients with DLBCL identified in the British Columbia Cancer Agency Lymphoid Cancer database. RESULTS: The risk model consists of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) factors in addition to involvement of kidneys and/or adrenal glands (CNS-IPI). In a three-risk group model, the low-risk group (46% of all patients analyzed), the intermediate-risk group (41%), and the high-risk group (12%) showed 2-year rates of CNS disease of 0.6% (CI, 0% to 1.2%), 3.4% (CI, 2.2% to 4.4%), and 10.2% (CI, 6.3% to 14.1%), respectively. Patients from the validation British Columbia Cancer Agency data set showed similar rates of CNS disease for low-risk (0.8%; CI, 0.0% to 1.6%), intermediate-risk (3.9%; CI, 2.3% to 5.5%), and high-risk (12.0%; CI, 7.9% to 16.1%) groups. CONCLUSION: The CNS-IPI is a robust, highly reproducible tool that can be used to estimate the risk of CNS relapse/progression in patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) chemotherapy. Close to 90% of patients with DLBCL belong to the low- and intermediate-risk groups and have a CNS relapse risk < 5%; they may be spared any diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. In contrast, those in the high-risk group have a > 10% risk of CNS relapse and should be considered for CNS-directed investigations and prophylactic interventions.

Authors: N. Schmitz, Samira Zeynalova, M. Nickelsen, R. Kansara, D. Villa, L. H. Sehn, B. Glass, D. W. Scott, R. D. Gascoyne, J. M. Connors, Marita Ziepert, M. Pfreundschuh, Markus Löffler, K. J. Savage

Date Published: 10th Sep 2016

Journal: J Clin Oncol

Human Diseases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

Treatment of relapse and primary progression in aggressive lymphoma remains unsatisfactory; outcome is still poor. Better treatment strategies are much needed for this patient population. The R1 study is a prospective multi-center phase I/II study evaluating a dose finding approach with a triple transplant regimen in four BEAM dose levels in patients with relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The aim of the study was to determine feasibility, toxicity, and remission rate. In a total of 39 patients (pts.) enrolled in the study, 24 pts. were evaluated in the following analysis. Twenty pts. had aggressive B cell lymphoma, and two pts. had T cell lymphoma. All evaluated patients responded to DexaBEAM with a sufficient stem cell harvest. The phase I/II study was started with BEAM dose level II. Four patients were treated at dose level II, and 20 pts. were treated at dose level III. Due to the early termination of the study, dose levels I and IV were never administered. Sixteen pts. completed therapy according to protocol, and eight pts. (33.3 %) stopped treatment early. Infections (27 %) and stomatitis (13 %) were the most frequent grade III/IV non-hematologic toxicities. Thirteen percent of patients presented with severe grade III/IV lung toxicity during modified BEAM (m-BEAM). Fourteen pts. achieved a complete response (CR), one pt. achieved no change (NC), six pts. had progressive disease (PD), and two pts. died; for one pt., outcome is not known. One-year and 3-year event-free survival (EFS) was 38 and 33 %, respectively. Overall survival (OS) after 1 and 3 years was 50 and 38 %. In conclusion, dose escalation of standard BEAM is not feasible due to toxicity.

Authors: K. Hohloch, Samira Zeynalova, B. Chapuy, M. Pfreundschuh, Markus Löffler, Marita Ziepert, A. C. Feller, L. Trumper, D. Hasenclever, G. Wulf, N. Schmitz

Date Published: 12th May 2016

Journal: Ann Hematol

Human Diseases: non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

We investigated 41 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) diagnosed at one center harboring >/=50% of latently Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected neoplastic cells occurring in 34 patients aged >/=50 years and in 7 patients younger than 50 years in the absence of any known immunodeficiency for the expression patterns of EBV latent and immediate-early proteins, for the differentiation stage of the neoplastic cells, the presence of cytogenetic alterations and a possible co-infection with the human herpes virus (HHV)-8. Here, we show that EBV-positive DLBCLs rarely arise from naive and more frequently from post-germinal center B-cells that often contain crippling immunoglobulin gene mutations. Most of the lymphomas did not exhibit breaks in the BCL2, BCL6, and MYC genes and none of the cases investigated contained HHV-8 sequences. Patients aged <50 years performed better than older ones while in patients aged >/=50 years only the cellular composition had an impact on overall survival.

Authors: K. Johrens, R. U. Trappe, D. Lenze, M. Pfreundschuh, Marita Ziepert, Michael Hummel, I. Anagnostopoulos

Date Published: 29th Apr 2016

Journal: Leuk Lymphoma

Human Diseases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: Histologically, follicular lymphoma (FL) grades 1, 2 and 3A are composed of two distinct cell types, centroblasts and centrocytes. FL grade 3B is composed only of centroblasts and has been shown to differ in immunophenotype and genetics from FL that contain centrocytes. We aimed to understand the pathogenetic and clinical relation between FL grade 3A to FL grade 1/2 on the one hand and FL grade 3B on the other hand. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Trial patients with long-term follow-up and diagnosis of FL grade 3 were selected and samples underwent a second central pathological review using a multiple-observer approach to assess grading. RESULTS: Interobserver variability for diagnosing FL grade 3 was high. FL grade 3A frequently harbored areas of FL grade 1/2 within the same tissue specimen. FL grade 3B rarely coexisted with grade 1/2 or 3A, suggesting divergent pathogenesis. There was no statistically significant difference in outcome between 47 cases of FL grade 3A and 14 cases of grade 3B. Compared with grade 1/2 FL, both groups showed longer progression-free survival without late events, especially after immunochemotherapy; this outcome difference was retained after adjustment for clinical prognostic factors. The subgroup of FL grade 3A with an additional FL grade 1/2 component or a translocation t(14;18) showed a poorer outcome. In contrast, the FL grade 3A lacking t(14;18) and of localized stage resembled the pediatric type of FL and showed a very good outcome. FL3 with MYC breaks showed a poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that first-line immunochemotherapy might allow long-lasting remissions in a subgroup of FL grade 3A similar to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Within FL3A, prognostic subgroups can be identified by analyzing for coexisting FL1/2 and MYC breaks.

Authors: K. Koch, E. Hoster, Marita Ziepert, M. Unterhalt, G. Ott, A. Rosenwald, M. L. Hansmann, W. Bernd, H. Stein, V. Poschel, M. Dreyling, L. Trumper, Markus Löffler, N. Schmitz, W. Hiddemann, M. Pfreundschuh, W. Klapper

Date Published: 28th Apr 2016

Journal: Ann Oncol

Human Diseases: follicular lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-associated ovarian damage comprises not only infertility, but also premature menopause. The latter has been reported as a consequence of alkylating chemotherapy for breast cancer or Hodgkin's lymphoma. In this study, we assessed the long-term impact of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone)-like regimens on ovarian function in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Long-term survivors after CHOP or CHOP plus etoposide (CHOEP) treatment within the Mabthera International Trial or the NHL-B1 trial of the German NHL Study Group were requested to respond to a questionnaire and to consent to blood sampling for hormone assessment. RESULTS: A total of 46 of 81 contacted patients with a median age of 32.5 years at the time of enrolment into the aforementioned clinical trials responded to the questionnaire. The median follow-up after completion of treatment was 14 years. Last menstrual bleeding occurred significantly earlier in patients compared with the general population (47 versus 51 years, P < 0.0001). In comparison to the distribution of menopausal symptoms in the general population, the percentage of women with moderate or severe menopausal symptoms was increased. In 23 patients who agreed to participate in laboratory analyses, anti-Muller hormone as a marker of ovarian reserve was decreased when compared with correspondent age groups of the general population. CONCLUSION: Although most female patients regain fertility after CHOP-like chemotherapy, late ovarian impairment occurs frequently. Therefore, awareness of such delayed side-effects at the time of counselling is of importance.

Authors: J. Meissner, D. Tichy, V. Katzke, T. Kuhn, S. Dietrich, T. Schmitt, Marita Ziepert, E. Kuhnt, T. Rixecker, M. Zorn, M. Witzens-Harig, M. Pfreundschuh, A. D. Ho

Date Published: 13th May 2015

Journal: Ann Oncol

Human Diseases: lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

AIM: To identify gene variants responsible for anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. PATIENTS & METHODS: Polymorphisms of the NADPH oxidase subunits and of the anthracycline transporters ABCC1, ABCC2 and SLC28A3 were genotyped in elderly patients (61-80 years) treated for aggressive CD20(+) B-cell lymphomas with CHOP-14 with or without rituximab and followed up for 3 years. RESULTS: The accumulation of RAC2 subunit genotypes TA/AA among cases was statistically significant upon adjustment for gender, age and doxorubicin dose in a multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR: 2.3, p = 0.028; univariate: OR: 1.8, p = 0.077). RAC2 and CYBA genotypes were significantly associated with anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in a meta-analysis of this and a similar previous study. CONCLUSION: Our results support the theory that NADPH oxidase is involved in anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Original submitted 9 July 2014; Revision submitted 19 December 2014.

Authors: A. Reichwagen, Marita Ziepert, Markus Kreuz, U. Godtel-Armbrust, T. Rixecker, V. Poeschel, M. Reza Toliat, P. Nurnberg, M. Tzvetkov, S. Deng, L. Trumper, G. Hasenfuss, M. Pfreundschuh, L. Wojnowski

Date Published: 1st Apr 2015

Journal: Pharmacogenomics

Human Diseases: B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

Prognostically relevant risk factors in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have predominantly been evaluated in elderly populations. We tested whether previously described risk factors are also valid in younger, poor-prognosis DLBCL patients. Paraffin-embedded samples from 112 patients with de novo DLBCL, enrolled in the R-MegaCHOEP trial of the German High Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL) were investigated using immunohistochemistry (MYC, FOXP1, LMO2, GCET1, CD5, CD10, BCL2, BCL6, IRF4/MUM1) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (MYC, BCL2, BCL6). MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 breaks occurred in 14, 21 and 31%, respectively. In the majority of cases, MYC was simultaneously rearranged with BCL2 and/or BCL6. The adverse impact of MYC rearrangements was confirmed, but the sole presence of BCL2 breaks emerged as a novel prognostic marker associated with inferior overall survival (OS) (P=0.002). Combined overexpression of MYC and BCL2 showed only limited association with inferior OS. All immunohistochemical cell of origin classifiers applied failed to predict survival time. DLBCL tumors with significant proportion of immunoblastic and/or immunoblastic-plasmacytoid cells had inferior OS, independently from from BCL2 break. Younger, poor-prognosis DLBCL patients, therefore, display different biological risk factors compared with an elderly population, with BCL2 translocations emerging as a powerful negative prognostic marker.

Authors: H. Horn, Marita Ziepert, M. Wartenberg, A. M. Staiger, T. F. Barth, H. W. Bernd, A. C. Feller, W. Klapper, C. Stuhlmann-Laeisz, Michael Hummel, H. Stein, D. Lenze, S. Hartmann, M. L. Hansmann, P. Moller, S. Cogliatti, M. Pfreundschuh, L. Trumper, Markus Löffler, B. Glass, N. Schmitz, G. Ott, A. Rosenwald

Date Published: 18th Feb 2015

Journal: Leukemia

Human Diseases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

PURPOSE: To investigate the impact and mechanisms of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) on the outcome of elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred fifty-nine pretreatment 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) serum levels from the RICOVER-60 study (Six Versus Eight Cycles of Biweekly CHOP-14 With or Without Rituximab in Elderly Patients With Aggressive CD20+ B-Cell Lymphomas) and 63 from the RICOVER-noRTh study (an amendment to the RICOVER-60 study in which patients received six cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone administered at an interval of 2 weeks plus two cycles of rituximab [R-CHOP-14], but without radiotherapy) were determined by chemoluminescent immunoassay. Rituximab-mediated cellular cytotoxicity (RMCC) was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase release assay of CD20+ Daudi cells. RESULTS: RICOVER-60 patients with VDD (</= 8 ng/mL) and vitamin D levels more than 8 ng/mL treated with rituximab had 3-year event-free survival (EFS) of 59% and 79% and 3-year overall survival (OS) of 70% and 82%, respectively. These differences were significant in a multivariable analysis adjusting for International Prognostic Index risk factors with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.1 (P = .008) for EFS and 1.9 (P = .040) for OS. EFS was not significantly different in patients with vitamin D levels </= 8 or more than 8 ng/mL (HR, 1.2; P = .388) treated without rituximab. This was confirmed in an independent validation set of 63 RICOVER-noRTh patients. RMCC increased significantly (P < .001) in seven of seven individuals with VDD after substitution and normalization of their vitamin D levels. CONCLUSION: VDD is a risk factor for elderly patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. That VDD impairs RMCC and substitution improves RMCC strongly suggests that vitamin D substitution enhances rituximab efficacy, which must be confirmed in appropriately designed prospective trials addressing VDD and substitution not only in DLBCL, but also in malignancies treated with other antibodies, of which the major mechanism of action is antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (eg, trastuzumab in breast cancer and cetuximab in colorectal cancer).

Authors: J. T. Bittenbring, F. Neumann, Bettina Altmann, M. Achenbach, J. Reichrath, Marita Ziepert, J. Geisel, E. Regitz, G. Held, M. Pfreundschuh

Date Published: 10th Oct 2014

Journal: J Clin Oncol

Human Diseases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

To define the role of radiotherapy and intrathecal prophylaxis in extralymphatic craniofacial involvement (ECFI) of aggressive B-cell lymphoma, we analyzed 11 consecutive German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group trials. ECFI occurred in 290/4155 (7.0%) patients (orbita, 31; paranasal sinuses, 93; main nasal cavity, 38; tongue, 27; remaining oral cavity, 99; salivary glands, 54). In a multivariable analysis adjusted for International Prognostic Index rituximab improved event-free and overall survival both in patients with and without ECFI. Three-year event-free (79% vs 79%; P = .842) and overall survival (86% vs 88%; P = .351) rates were similar in 145 patients receiving and 57 not receiving radiotherapy. Without rituximab, the 2-year cumulative rate of central nervous system (CNS) disease was increased in 205 ECFI patients compared with 2586 non-ECFI patients (4.2% vs 2.8%; P = .038), whereas this was not observed with rituximab (1.6% in 83 ECFI vs 3.4% in 1252 non-ECFI patients; P = .682). In 88 ECFI patients who received intrathecal prophylaxis with methotrexate, the 2-year rate of CNS disease was 4.2% compared with 2.3% in 191 patients who did not (P = .981). In conclusion, rituximab eliminates the increased risk for CNS disease in patients with ECFI. This retrospective analysis does not support intrathecal prophylaxis or radiotherapy to ECFI patients in complete remission/unconfirmed complete remission. These findings should be confirmed in a prospective study.

Authors: N. Murawski, G. Held, Marita Ziepert, B. Kempf, A. Viardot, M. Hanel, M. Witzens-Harig, R. Mahlberg, C. Rube, J. Fleckenstein, C. Zwick, B. Glass, N. Schmitz, Samira Zeynalova, M. Pfreundschuh

Date Published: 31st Jul 2014

Journal: Blood

Human Diseases: B-cell lymphoma

Abstract

Not specified

Authors: K. Hohloch, Samira Zeynalova, G. Held, Marita Ziepert, Markus Löffler, G. Wulf, N. Schmitz, M. Pfreundschuh, L. Trumper

Date Published: 10th Jul 2014

Journal: Leukemia

Human Diseases: non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Abstract

Not specified

Authors: M. Achenbach, J. T. Bittenbring, Marita Ziepert, E. Regitz, G. Ott, A. Rosenwald, M. Pfreundschuh, Bettina Altmann, G. Held

Date Published: 1st Jul 2014

Journal: Br J Haematol

Human Diseases: B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

PURPOSE: R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) is standard care for aggressive B-cell lymphoma. A prospective trial was conducted to investigate the role of additive radiotherapy (RT) to bulky and extralymphatic disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The best arm of the RICOVER-60 trial (6xR-CHOP-14+2R [R-CHOP administered once every 2 weeks plus two additional applications of rituximab] plus involved-field RT [36 Gy] to sites of initial bulky [>/= 7.5 cm] disease and extralymphatic involvement) was compared with a cohort receiving the same immunochemotherapy but without RT in an amendment to the RICOVER-60 trial (RICOVER-noRTh) in a prospective fashion. RESULTS: After a median observation time of 39 months, 164 of 166 RICOVER-noRTh patients were evaluable. In a multivariable analysis of the intention-to-treat population adjusting for International Prognostic Index risk factors and age (> 70 years), event-free survival (EFS) of patients with bulky disease was inferior without additive RT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.5; P = .005), with trends for inferior progression-free (PFS; HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.3; P = .058) and overall survival (OS; HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.9 to 3.1; P = .127). In a per-protocol analysis with 11 patients in RICOVER-noRTh excluded for receiving unplanned RT, multivariable analysis revealed HRs of 2.7 (95% CI, 1.3 to 5.9; P = .011) for EFS, 4.4 (95% CI, 1.8 to 10.6; P = .001) for PFS, and 4.3 (95% CI, 1.7 to 11.1; P = .002) for OS for patients not receiving RT to bulky disease. CONCLUSION: Additive RT to bulky sites abrogates bulky disease as a risk factor and improves outcome of elderly patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Whether RT can be spared in patients with (metabolic) complete remission after immunochemotherapy must be addressed in appropriately designed prospective trials.

Authors: G. Held, N. Murawski, Marita Ziepert, J. Fleckenstein, V. Poschel, C. Zwick, J. Bittenbring, M. Hanel, S. Wilhelm, J. Schubert, N. Schmitz, Markus Löffler, C. Rube, M. Pfreundschuh

Date Published: 10th Apr 2014

Journal: J Clin Oncol

Human Diseases: non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

Tumors are composed of phenotypically heterogeneous cell populations. The nongenomic mechanisms underlying transitions and interactions between cell populations are largely unknown. Here, we show that diffuse large B-cell lymphomas possess a self-organized infrastructure comprising side population (SP) and non-SP cells, where transitions between clonogenic states are modulated by exosome-mediated Wnt signaling. DNA methylation modulated SP-non-SP transitions and was correlated with the reciprocal expressions of Wnt signaling pathway agonist Wnt3a in SP cells and the antagonist secreted frizzled-related protein 4 in non-SP cells. Lymphoma SP cells exhibited autonomous clonogenicity and exported Wnt3a via exosomes to neighboring cells, thus modulating population equilibrium in the tumor.

Authors: R. Koch, M. Demant, T. Aung, N. Diering, A. Cicholas, B. Chapuy, D. Wenzel, M. Lahmann, A. Guntsch, C. Kiecke, S. Becker, T. Hupfeld, V. Venkataramani, Marita Ziepert, L. Opitz, W. Klapper, L. Trumper, G. G. Wulf

Date Published: 3rd Apr 2014

Journal: Blood

Human Diseases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Abstract

Not specified

Authors: J. Meissner, D. Tichy, S. Dietrich, T. Schmitt, Marita Ziepert, E. Kuhnt, T. Rixecker, M. Witzens-Harig, M. Pfreundschuh, A. D. Ho

Date Published: 3rd Apr 2014

Journal: Br J Haematol

Human Diseases: lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: Dose escalation and modification of CHOP has improved the prognosis of patients with aggressive lymphoma; even in the rituximab era, dose escalation for high-risk patients is exploited and frequently limited by drug toxicity. Idarubicin (Id) is a 4-demethoxy anthracycline analogue of daunorubicin with activity against lymphoma and has been reported to cause less cardiotoxicity than other anthracylines. The aim of this study was to replace doxorubicine with idarubicin in the CHOEP regimen and to find the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) of idarubicin based on hematotoxicity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 11/96 and 09/98, 64 patients (pts) aged 18-75 yrs (pts. 18-60, LDH not elevated, >60 years all risk groups) with newly diagnosed aggressive lymphoma received 6 cycles of CIVEP-14 with an escalating dose of idarubicin, consisting of idarubicin (11-16 mg/m(2) d1) and standard doses of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, etoposide, and prednisone with G-CSF support. RESULTS: 55 pts (median age 56 yrs) were evaluable for a final analysis with a median observation time of 9.3 years. The CR-rate was 77.4% ; the 5 and 8-year-EFS rates were 46.4% (95%CI 32.5-60.3%) and 43.5% (29.4-57.6%), respectively, and the 5- and 8 yr OS rates were 64.6% (51.7-77.5%) and 59.9% (46.4-73.4%). 14/55 patients have died due to lymphoma progression, and 2/55 patients (3.6%) due to treatment related toxicity, 4/55 due to other causes (3 infections, 1 acute heart failure). In a matched pair analysis comparing CHOEP-14 and CIVEP-14, CIVEP-14 had a higher hematotoxicity with no significant differences in the event free and overall survival for the two regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, idarubicin cannot be used instead doxorubicin even if its dose is escalated to achieve similar hematotoxicity. Doxorubicin remains the standard anthracycline for the treatment of aggressive NHL.

Authors: K. Hohloch, C. Zwick, Marita Ziepert, D. Hasenclever, U. Kaiser, A. Engert, H. G. Hoffkes, F. Kroschinsky, R. Mesters, A. C. Feller, Markus Löffler, L. Trumper, M. Pfreundschuh

Date Published: 3rd Jan 2014

Journal: Springerplus

Human Diseases: non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

PURPOSE: To study clinical presentation, outcome, and the role of radiotherapy in patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma and skeletal involvement treated with and without rituximab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Outcome of patients with skeletal involvement was analyzed in a retrospective study of nine consecutive prospective trials of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Study Group. RESULTS: Of 3,840 patients, 292 (7.6%) had skeletal involvement. In the MabThera International Trial (MInT) for young good-prognosis patients and the Rituximab With CHOP Over 60 Years (RICOVER-60) study for elderly patients, the randomized addition of rituximab improved event-free survival (EFS; hazard ratio for MInT [HRMInT] = 0.4, P > 001; hazard ratio for RICOVER-60 [HRRICOVER-60] = 0.6, P > .001) and overall survival (OS; HRMInT = 0.4, P < .001; HRRICOVER-60 = 0.7, P = .002) in patients without skeletal involvement, but failed to improve the outcome of patients with skeletal involvement (EFS: HRMInT = 1.4, P = .444; HRRICOVER-60 = 0.8, P = .449; OS: HRMInT = 0.6, P = .449; HRRICOVER-60 = 1.0, P = .935). Skeletal involvement was associated with a worse outcome after cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) plus rituximab (HREFS = 1.5, P = .048; HROS = 1.1; P = .828), but not after CHOP without rituximab (HREFS = 0.8, P = .181; HROS = 0.7, P = .083). In contrast to rituximab, additive radiotherapy to sites of skeletal involvement was associated with a decreased risk (HREFS = 0.3, P = .001; HROS = 0.5; P = .111). CONCLUSION: Rituximab failed to improve the outcome of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with skeletal involvement, although our data suggest a beneficial effect of radiotherapy to sites of skeletal involvement. Whether radiotherapy to sites of skeletal involvement can be spared in cases with a negative positron emission tomography after immunochemotherapy should be addressed in appropriately designed prospective trials.

Authors: G. Held, Samira Zeynalova, N. Murawski, Marita Ziepert, B. Kempf, A. Viardot, M. Dreyling, M. Hallek, M. Witzens-Harig, J. Fleckenstein, C. Rube, C. Zwick, B. Glass, N. Schmitz, M. Pfreundschuh

Date Published: 10th Nov 2013

Journal: J Clin Oncol

Human Diseases: B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

Bi-weekly (R)-CHOP therapy is one of the standard treatmentS for elderly patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma, but it is only feasible with supportive G-CSF treatment. In the trials of the DSHNHL, either unpegylated G-CSF was given daily over 7 or 10 days or pegylated G-CSF was applied at day 4 of each cycle. These schedules were planned on the basis of simulations of a biomathematical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model. By analysing the observed data, we investigated whether our model predictions were correct and whether even better schedules can be proposed. We used data on 249 matched patients of two prospective trials, RICOVER-60 and PEGFILGRASTIM. The three G-CSF-schedules showed similar outcomes regarding leukocytopenia, infections and days in hospital, with pegylated G-CSF having slightly but not significantly better scores in all three endpoints. Regarding pegylated G-CSF, the best timing is predicted to be any day between days 4 and 7. With respect to unpegylated G-CSF, the starting day is less important, but it should be continued until the end of each cycle.The three G-CSF-schedules are interchangeable in (R)-CHOP-14 for elderly patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Our model correctly predicts time courses of leukocytes. Further model predictions are presented, which can be tested in subsequent clinical trials.

Authors: Samira Zeynalova, Marita Ziepert, Markus Scholz, S. Schirm, C. Zwick, M. Pfreundschuh, Markus Löffler

Date Published: 30th Jul 2013

Journal: Ann Hematol

Human Diseases: B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

MYC rearrangements occur in 5% to 10% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and confer an increased risk to cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin, and prednisone (CHOP) and rituximab (R)-CHOP treated patients. We investigated the prognostic relevance of MYC-, BCL2- and BCL6-rearrangements and protein expression in a prospective randomized trial. Paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 442 de novo DLBCL treated within the RICOVER study of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL) were investigated using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect protein expression and breaks of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6. Rearrangements of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 were detected in 8.8%, 13.5%, and 28.7%, respectively. Protein overexpression of MYC (>40%) was encountered in 31.8% of tumors; 79.6% and 82.8% of tumors expressed BCL2 and BCL6, respectively. MYC translocations, MYChigh, BCL2high, and BCL6low protein expressions were associated with inferior survival. In multivariate Cox regression modeling, protein expression patterns of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6, and MYC rearrangements were predictive of outcome and provided prognostic information independent of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) for overall survival and event-free survival. A combined immunohistochemical or FISH/immunohistochemical score predicts outcome in DLBCL patients independent of the IPI and identifies a subset of 15% of patients with dismal prognosis in the high-risk IPI group following treatment with R-CHOP. Registered at http://www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials: RICOVER trial of the DSHNHL is NCT 00052936.

Authors: H. Horn, Marita Ziepert, C. Becher, T. F. Barth, H. W. Bernd, A. C. Feller, W. Klapper, Michael Hummel, H. Stein, M. L. Hansmann, C. Schmelter, P. Moller, S. Cogliatti, M. Pfreundschuh, N. Schmitz, L. Trumper, R. Siebert, Markus Löffler, A. Rosenwald, G. Ott

Date Published: 21st Mar 2013

Journal: Blood

Human Diseases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: High-dose therapy (HDT) followed by transplantation of autologous haemopoietic stem cells is frequently done as part of first-line therapy in young patients with high-risk aggressive B-cell lymphoma. We investigated whether HDT with cytotoxic agents identical to those used for conventional therapy followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) improved survival outcome compared with conventional chemotherapy when rituximab was added to both modalities. METHODS: We did an open-label, randomised trial comparing conventional chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone) and rituximab (R-CHOEP-14) with dose-escalated sequential HDT and rituximab (R-MegaCHOEP) followed by repetitive ASCT in high-risk (age-adjusted International Prognostic Index [IPI] 2 or 3) patients aged 18-60 years with aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Eligible patients received radiotherapy for bulky, extranodal disease, or both. Randomisation (1:1) used the Pocock minimisation algorithm; patients were stratified by age-adjusted IPI factors, bulky disease, and centre. The primary endpoint was event-free survival. All analyses were done on the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00129090. FINDINGS: 136 patients were randomly assigned to R-CHOEP-14 and 139 to R-MegaCHOEP. 130 patients in the R-CHOEP-14 group and 132 in the R-MegaCHOEP group were included in the intention-to-treat population. After a median of 42 months (IQR 29-59), 3-year event-free survival was 69.5% (95% CI 61.3-77.7) in the R-CHOEP-14 group and 61.4% (52.8-70.0) in the R-MegaCHOEP group (p=0.14; hazard ratio 1.3, 95% CI 0.9-2.0). All 128 evaluable patients treated with R-MegaCHOEP had grade 4 leucopenia, as did 48 (58.5%) of 82 patients with documented blood counts in the R-CHOEP-14 group. All 128 evaluable patients in the R-MegaCHOEP group had grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia, as did 26 (33.8%) of 77 patients in the R-CHOEP-14 group with documented blood counts. The most important non-haematological grade 3 or 4 adverse event was infection, which occurred in 96 (75.0%) of 128 patients treated with R-MegaCHOEP and in 40 (31.3%) of 128 patients treated with R-CHOEP-14. INTERPRETATION: In young patients with high-risk aggressive B-cell lymphoma, R-MegaCHOEP was not superior to conventional R-CHOEP therapy and was associated with significantly more toxic effects. R-CHOEP-14 with or without radiotherapy remains a treatment option for these patients, with encouraging efficacy. FUNDING: Deutsche Krebshilfe.

Authors: N. Schmitz, M. Nickelsen, Marita Ziepert, M. Haenel, P. Borchmann, C. Schmidt, A. Viardot, M. Bentz, N. Peter, G. Ehninger, G. Doelken, C. Ruebe, L. Truemper, A. Rosenwald, M. Pfreundschuh, Markus Löffler, B. Glass

Date Published: 22nd Nov 2012

Journal: Lancet Oncol

Human Diseases: non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

PURPOSE: Peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (T-NHL) represent a small but heterogeneous and clinically aggressive subset of NHLs with a poor outcome. Cytokines or their receptors might be associated with the clinical outcome of these lymphomas. Therefore, we tested whether gene variations and serum levels of soluble TNF receptor (TNFR)I (sTNFRI), sTNFRII, interleukin (IL)-10, or sIL-4R are predictive for treatment response in T-NHLs. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Peripheral blood DNA from 117 patients with T-NHL treated in prospective clinical trials was subjected to genotyping analysis. Whenever possible, pretreatment sera were obtained, and circulating levels of sTNFRI, sTNFRII, IL-10, and sIL-4R were determined with a specific capture enzyme-linked immunoassay. RESULTS: Patients characterized by TNFRI-609GG (rs4149570) showed a trend toward better event free survival [EFS; univariate: P = 0.041; multivariate: HR, 1.76; confidence interval (CI), 0.99-3.14 with P = 0.056]. A protective role of IL-10-1087A, -824T, and -597A reported in another study was not confirmed in our cohort. Patients with circulating levels of soluble TNFRII >/=2.16 ng/mL had a 2.07-fold increased relative risk for shorter overall survival (OS; univariate: P = 0.0034; multivariate: HR, 2.07; CI, 0.92-4.70 with P = 0.081) and a 2.49-fold higher risk for shorter EFS (univariate: P = 0.00068; multivariate: HR, 2.49; CI, 1.22-5.08 with P = 0.012). Elevations of circulating levels of sTNFRI, IL-10, and sIL-4R are frequent, but the clinical response in these patients is not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a critical role for TNF-TNFR signaling for the clinical outcome of patients with peripheral T-NHLs.

Authors: C. Heemann, Markus Kreuz, I. Stoller, N. Schoof, F. von Bonin, Marita Ziepert, Markus Löffler, W. Jung, M. Pfreundschuh, L. Trumper, D. Kube

Date Published: 1st Jul 2012

Journal: Clin Cancer Res

Human Diseases: non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

The survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients varies considerably, reflecting the molecular diversity of tumors. In view of the controversy whether cytologic features, immunohistochemical markers or gene expression signatures may capture this molecular diversity, we investigated which features provide prognostic information in a prospective trial in the R-CHOP treatment era. Within the cohort of DLBCLs patients treated in the RICOVER-60 trial of the German High-Grade Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL), we tested the prognostic impact of IB morphology in 949 patients. The expression of immunohistochemical markers CD5, CD10, BCL2, BCL6, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, interferon regulatory factor-4/multiple myeloma-1 (IRF4/MUM1), and Ki-67 was assessed in 506 patients. Expression of the immunohistochemical markers tested was of modest, if any, prognostic relevance. Moreover, the Hans algorithm using the expression patterns of CD10, BCL6, and interferon regulatory factor-4/multiple myeloma-1 failed to show prognostic significance in the entire cohort as well as in patient subgroups. IB morphology, however, emerged as a robust, significantly adverse prognostic factor in multivariate analysis, and its diagnosis showed a good reproducibility among expert hematopathologists. We conclude, therefore, that IB morphology in DLBCL is likely to capture some of the adverse molecular alterations that are currently not detectable in a routine diagnostic setting, and that its recognition has significant prognostic power.

Authors: G. Ott, Marita Ziepert, W. Klapper, H. Horn, M. Szczepanowski, H. W. Bernd, C. Thorns, A. C. Feller, D. Lenze, Michael Hummel, H. Stein, H. K. Muller-Hermelink, M. Frank, M. L. Hansmann, T. F. Barth, P. Moller, S. Cogliatti, M. Pfreundschuh, N. Schmitz, L. Trumper, Markus Löffler, A. Rosenwald

Date Published: 2nd Dec 2010

Journal: Blood

Human Diseases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

To evaluate outcome and prognosis of patients with T-cell lymphoma we analyzed 343 patients treated within trials of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL). Two hundred eighty-nine patients belonged to 1 of the 4 major T-cell lymphoma subtypes: anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), anaplastic large cell lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive (n = 78); ALCL, ALK-negative (n = 113); peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (PTCLU; n = 70); and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL; n = 28). Treatment consisted of 6-8 courses of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone/prednisolone) or etoposide plus (CHOEP). Three-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival were 75.8% and 89.8% (ALK-positive ALCL), 50.0% and 67.5% (AITL), 45.7% and 62.1% (ALK-negative ALCL), and 41.1% and 53.9% (PTCLU), respectively. The International Prognostic Index (IPI) was effective in defining risk groups with significantly different outcomes. For patients, </= 60 years with lactate dehydrogenase </= upper normal value (UNV), etoposide improved improved 3-year EFS: 75.4% versus 51.0%, P = .003. In patients > 60 years 6 courses of CHOP administered every 3 weeks remains the standard therapy. Patients with ALK-negative ALCL, PTCLU, or AITL presenting with IPI > 1 have a poor prognosis and should be considered candidates for novel treatment strategies.

Authors: N. Schmitz, L. Trumper, Marita Ziepert, M. Nickelsen, A. D. Ho, B. Metzner, N. Peter, Markus Löffler, A. Rosenwald, M. Pfreundschuh

Date Published: 4th Nov 2010

Journal: Blood

Human Diseases: mature T-cell and NK-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

PURPOSE: The International Prognostic Index (IPI) is widely used for risk stratification of patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma. The introduction of rituximab has markedly improved outcome, and R-CHOP (rituximab + cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) has become the standard treatment for CD20(+) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. To investigate whether the IPI has maintained its power for risk stratification when rituximab is combined with CHOP, we analyzed the prognostic relevance of IPI in three prospective clinical trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 1,062 patients treated with rituximab were included (MabThera International Trial [MInT], 380 patients; dose-escalated regimen of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, and prednisone (MegaCHOEP) trial, 72 patients; CHOP + rituximab for patients older than age 60 years [RICOVER-60] trial, 610 patients). A multivariate proportional hazards modeling was performed for single IPI factors under rituximab on event-free, progression-free, and overall survival. RESULTS: IPI score was significant for all three end points. Rituximab significantly improved treatment outcome within each IPI group resulting in a quenching of the Kaplan-Meier estimators. However, IPI was a significant prognostic factor in all three end points and the ordering of the IPI groups remained valid. The relative risk estimates of single IPI factors and their order in patients treated with R-CHOP were similar to those found with CHOP. CONCLUSION: The effects of rituximab were superimposed on the effects of CHOP with no interactions between chemotherapy and antibody therapy. These results demonstrate that the IPI is still valid in the R-CHOP era.

Authors: Marita Ziepert, D. Hasenclever, E. Kuhnt, B. Glass, N. Schmitz, M. Pfreundschuh, Markus Löffler

Date Published: 10th May 2010

Journal: J Clin Oncol

Human Diseases: B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

NAD(P)H oxidase is a major endogenous source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS may not only be involved in carcinogenesis but also in efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents like doxorubicin. By a comprehensive genotyping approach covering 48 genetic polymorphisms (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) in five subunits of phagocytic NAD(P)H oxidase, we asked whether they affect gene expression, enzymatic activity, and outcome of CHO(E)P chemotherapy. A highly consistent effect was observed for the CYBA 640A>G variant. In peripheral blood granulocytes of 125 healthy volunteers, the G allele of 640A>G was associated with lower NAD(P)H oxidase activity (P = 0.006). Moreover, the G allele was associated with lower mRNA and protein expression (both P = 0.02). Of clinical importance, the outcome of patients suffering from non-Hodgkin lymphoma and treated with CHO(E)P regimen was dependent on the CYBA 640A>G polymorphism. In an exploratory study (n = 401), carriers of 640GG had an event-free survival (EFS) risk ratio of 1.95 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.31-2.90; P = 0.001] compared with 640AA. In a confirmatory set (n = 477), the risk ratios were 1.53 (1.04-2.25, P = 0.03). The complete set of 878 patients showed a relative risk of 1.72 (1.30-2.26) and 1.59 (1.14-2.21) for EFS and overall survival, respectively. Further molecular-biological experiments showed lower expression and reduced stability of transcripts with the G allele in lymphoblastoid cell lines. Transfection of allele-specific plasmids into HEK293 cells elicited lower activity for the G allele in a luciferase reporter gene construct. Thus, CYBA 640A>G was shown to be a functional polymorphism with possible consequences for patients receiving CHO(E)P chemotherapy and might have further implications for other ROS-mediated modalities.

Authors: M. Hoffmann, M. A. Schirmer, M. V. Tzvetkov, Markus Kreuz, Marita Ziepert, L. Wojnowski, D. Kube, M. Pfreundschuh, L. Trumper, Markus Löffler, J. Brockmoller

Date Published: 15th Mar 2010

Journal: Cancer Res

Human Diseases: non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: Research on prognostically relevant immunohistochemical markers in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas has mostly been performed on retrospectively collected clinical data. This is also true for immunohistochemical classifiers that are thought to reflect the cell-of-origin subclassification of gene expression studies. In order to obtain deeper insight into the heterogeneous prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and to validate a previously published immunohistochemical classifier, we analyzed data from a large set of cases from prospective clinical trials with long-term follow-up. DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed morphological and extensive immunohistochemical analyses in 414 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma from two prospective randomized clinical trials (NHL-B1/B2, Germany). Classification into germinal center and non-germinal center subtypes of B-cell lymphoma was based on the expression pattern of CD10, BCL6, and IRF4. Multivariate analyses were performed adjusting for the factors in the International Prognostic Index. RESULTS: Analyzing 20 different epitopes on tissue microarrays, expression of HLA-DR, presence of CD23(+) follicular dendritic cell meshworks, and monotypic light chain expression emerged as International Prognostic Index-independent markers of superior overall survival. Immunoblastic morphology was found to be related to poor event-free survival. The non-germinal center subtype, according to the three-epitope classifier (CD10, BCL6, and IRF4) did not have prognostic relevance when adjusted for International Prognostic Index factors (relative risk=1.2, p=0.328 for overall survival; and relative risk=1.1, p=0.644 for event-free survival). CONCLUSIONS: The previously reported International Prognostic Index-independent prognostic value of stratification into germinal center/non-germinal center B-cell lymphoma using the expression pattern of CD10, BCL6, and IRF4 was not reproducible in our series. However, other markers and the morphological subtype appear to be of prognostic value.

Authors: H. W. Bernd, Marita Ziepert, C. Thorns, W. Klapper, H. H. Wacker, Michael Hummel, H. Stein, M. L. Hansmann, G. Ott, A. Rosenwald, H. K. Muller-Hermelink, T. F. Barth, P. Moller, S. B. Cogliatti, M. Pfreundschuh, N. Schmitz, L. Trumper, S. Holler, Markus Löffler, A. C. Feller

Date Published: 3rd Nov 2009

Journal: Haematologica

Human Diseases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: T-cell lymphomas (T-NHL) generally carry a poor prognosis. High-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) are increasingly used to treat younger patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: We treated patients <61 years with high-risk aggressive lymphoma with four to six courses of dose-escalated CHOP plus etoposide (MegaCHOEP) necessitating repeated ASCT. Outcomes of patients with mature T-NHL (excluding anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma) and aggressive B-NHL were compared using multivariate Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Compared with 84.4% of B-NHL patients, 66.7% of T-NHL patients were able to receive all treatments; the rates of progressive disease were 27.3% in T-NHL and 16.3% in B-NHL patients. At 3 years, event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival were significantly worse for T-NHL [25.9% confidence interval (CI) 10.4% to 41.4% and 44.5% CI 26.5% to 62.5%) than for B-NHL patients (60.1% CI 52.1% to 68.1%; P < 0.001 and 63.4% CI 55.4% to 71.4%; P = 0.016). In multivariate analysis, T-NHL was a strongly significant adverse risk factor for EFS (relative risk 2.2, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: MegaCHOEP for T-NHL patients was no better than other high-dose regimens and was unable to address the major problems of HDT/ASCT: neither early progressions nor early relapses were reduced. This study sheds some doubt on expectations that HDT/ASCT will significantly improve outcomes for patients with T-NHL.

Authors: M. Nickelsen, Marita Ziepert, Samira Zeynalova, B. Glass, B. Metzner, M. Leithaeuser, H. K. Mueller-Hermelink, M. Pfreundschuh, N. Schmitz

Date Published: 3rd Jul 2009

Journal: Ann Oncol

Human Diseases: T-cell leukemia

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: Recently published data indicate that host germline variations in immune genes can influence the outcome of lymphoma patients. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL13 are crucial immune factors and may influence the course of the disease. Both cytokines signal through the interleukin-4 receptor (IL4R). Therefore, we investigated whether polymorphisms of IL4, IL13 and IL4R genes could predict the outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. METHODS: In 228 DLBCL samples of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group, the polymorphisms of IL4 (-524CT, rs2243250), IL13 (-1069CT, rs1800925) and IL4R (I75V, rs1805010; S503P, rs1805015; Q576R, rs1801275) were analyzed and the soluble interleukin-4 receptor (sIL4R) serum level was measured before the start of chemotherapy. RESULTS: Patients harboring IL4R V75 (IL4R(I75V-AG) and IL4R(I75V-GG)) had shorter overall survival (OS) (P = 0.044) and event-free survival (EFS) (P = 0.056) periods compared with I75 carriers (IL4R(I75V-AA)). Multivariate analysis adjusted to the International Prognostic Index revealed a relative risk of 1.9 for carriers of the IL4R V75 (P = 0.011) in relation to OS. DLBCL patients homozygous for the IL4R I75 and low sIL4R serum levels have the most favorable OS and EFS. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the role for host germline gene variations of immunologically important factors like the IL4R I75V gene variation to predict the survival in DLBCL patients.

Authors: N. Schoof, F. von Bonin, Samira Zeynalova, Marita Ziepert, W. Jung, Markus Löffler, M. Pfreundschuh, L. Trumper, D. Kube

Date Published: 12th Jun 2009

Journal: Ann Oncol

Human Diseases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

MicroRNAs (miRNA, miR) are negative regulators of gene expression that play an important role in diverse biological processes such as development, cell growth, apoptosis and haematopoiesis, suggesting their association with cancer. Here we analysed the expression signatures of 157 miRNAs in 58 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 46 follicular lymphoma (FL) and seven non-neoplastic lymph nodes (LN). Comparison of the possible combinations of DLBCL-, FL- and LN resulted in specific DLBCL- and FL-signatures, which include miRNAs with previously published function in haematopoiesis (MIRN150 and MIRN155) or tumour development (MIRN210, MIRN10A, MIRN17-5P and MIRN145). As compared to LN, some miRNAs are differentially regulated in both lymphoma types (MIRN155, MIRN210, MIRN106A, MIRN149 and MIRN139). Conversely, some miRNAs show lymphoma-specific aberrant expression, such as MIRN9/9*, MIRN301, MIRN338 and MIRN213 in FL and MIRN150, MIRN17-5P, MIRN145, MIRN328 and others in DLBCL. A classification tree was computed using four miRNAs (MIRN330, MIRN17-5P, MIRN106a and MIRN210) to correctly identify 98% of all 111 cases that were analysed in this study. Finally, eight miRNAs were found to correlate with event-free and overall survival in DLBCL including known tumour suppressors (MIRN21, MIRN127 and MIRN34a) and oncogenes (MIRN195 and MIRNLET7G).

Authors: A. Roehle, K. P. Hoefig, D. Repsilber, C. Thorns, Marita Ziepert, K. O. Wesche, M. Thiere, Markus Löffler, W. Klapper, M. Pfreundschuh, A. Matolcsy, H. W. Bernd, L. Reiniger, H. Merz, A. C. Feller

Date Published: 10th Jun 2008

Journal: Br J Haematol

Human Diseases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP) is used to treat patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Interval decrease from 3 weeks of treatment (CHOP-21) to 2 weeks (CHOP-14), and addition of rituximab to CHOP-21 (R-CHOP-21) has been shown to improve outcome in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This randomised trial assessed whether six or eight cycles of R-CHOP-14 can improve outcome of these patients compared with six or eight cycles of CHOP-14. METHODS: 1222 elderly patients (aged 61-80 years) were randomly assigned to six or eight cycles of CHOP-14 with or without rituximab. Radiotherapy was planned to sites of initial bulky disease with or without extranodal involvement. The primary endpoint was event-free survival; secondary endpoints were response, progression during treatment, progression-free survival, overall survival, and frequency of toxic effects. Analyses were done by intention to treat. The trial is registered on National Cancer Institute website, number NCT00052936 and as EU-20243. FINDINGS: 3-year event-free survival was 47.2% after six cycles of CHOP-14 (95% CI 41.2-53.3), 53.0% (47.0-59.1) after eight cycles of CHOP-14, 66.5% (60.9-72.0) after six cycles of R-CHOP-14, and 63.1% (57.4-68.8) after eight cycles of R-CHOP-14. Compared with six cycles of CHOP-14, the improvement in 3-year event-free survival was 5.8% (-2.8-14.4) for eight cycles of CHOP-14, 19.3% (11.1-27.5) for six cycles of R-CHOP-14, and 15.9% (7.6-24.2) for eight cycles of R-CHOP-14. 3-year overall survival was 67.7% (62.0-73.5) for six cycles of CHOP-14, 66.0% (60.1-71.9) for eight cycles of CHOP-14, 78.1% (73.2-83.0) for six cycles of R-CHOP-14, and 72.5% (67.1-77.9) for eight cycles of R-CHOP-14. Compared with treatment with six cycles of CHOP-14, overall survival improved by -1.7% (-10.0-6.6) after eight cycles of CHOP-14, 10.4% (2.8-18.0) after six cycles of R-CHOP-14, and 4.8% (-3.1-12.7) after eight cycles of R-CHOP-14. In a multivariate analysis that used six cycles of CHOP-14 without rituximab as the reference, and adjusting for known prognostic factors, all three intensified regimens improved 3-year event-free survival (eight cycles of CHOP-14: RR [relative risk] 0.76 [0.60-0.95], p=0.0172; six cycles of R-CHOP-14: RR 0.51 [0.40-0.65], p<0.0001; eight cycles of R-CHOP-14: RR 0.54 [0.43-0.69], p<0.0001). Progression-free survival improved after six cycles of R-CHOP-14 (RR 0.50 [0.38-0.67], p<0.0001), and eight cycles of R-CHOP-14 (RR 0.59 [0.45-0.77], p=0.0001). Overall survival improved only after six cycles of R-CHOP-14 (RR 0.63 [0.46-0.85], p=0.0031). In patients with a partial response after four cycles of chemotherapy, eight cycles were not better than six cycles. INTERPRETATION: Six cycles of R-CHOP-14 significantly improved event-free, progression-free, and overall survival over six cycles of CHOP-14 treatment. Response-adapted addition of chemotherapy beyond six cycles, though widely practiced, is not justified. Of the four regimens assessed in this study, six cycles of R-CHOP-14 is the preferred treatment for elderly patients, with which other approaches should be compared.

Authors: M. Pfreundschuh, J. Schubert, Marita Ziepert, R. Schmits, M. Mohren, E. Lengfelder, M. Reiser, C. Nickenig, M. Clemens, N. Peter, C. Bokemeyer, H. Eimermacher, A. Ho, M. Hoffmann, R. Mertelsmann, L. Trumper, L. Balleisen, R. Liersch, B. Metzner, F. Hartmann, B. Glass, V. Poeschel, N. Schmitz, C. Ruebe, A. C. Feller, Markus Löffler

Date Published: 30th Jan 2008

Journal: Lancet Oncol

Human Diseases: non-Hodgkin lymphoma, B-cell lymphoma

Abstract (Expand)

BACKGROUND: Little is known on the heterogeneity of hematotoxicity in patients receiving multicycle chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data of 1399 patients with aggressive lymphoma from trials using CHOP (combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone)-like therapies. Multivariate modeling was carried out for leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia and the models were validated by two large independent datasets from trials with/without usage of the CD20-antibody rituximab. RESULTS: On the basis of these models, we are able to predict the remarkable heterogeneity of hematotoxicity and propose to use risk groups. Regarding leukocytopenia, the low toxicity risk group experienced World Health Organization grade 4 in <10% of the cycles while the high toxicity risk group in almost all cycles. For thrombocytopenia, groups were detectable with almost no grade 3 or 4 toxicity and others where two out of three cycles were affected. In a separate set of models, the first cycle toxicity was the strongest predictor for later hematotoxicity. The risk for leukocytopenia was associated with infections, antibiotic use, hospitalization and treatment-related mortality, indicating the clinical usefulness of the models. For the first time, a Web-based tool is made available to easily predict the hematotoxicity in clinical practice (www.toxcalculator.com). CONCLUSION: This analysis has implications for patient management and prophylaxis.

Authors: Marita Ziepert, R. Schmits, L. Trumper, Marita Ziepert, Markus Löffler

Date Published: 1st Dec 2007

Journal: Ann Oncol

Human Diseases: non-Hodgkin lymphoma

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